Artículos

ARTÍCULOS DE INTERÉS

 

En esta sección la Facultad de Medicina presente divulgar links sobre artículos de interés para la comunidad universitaria.

 

Competencias esenciales en Salud Pública: Un Marco Regional para las Américas

Organización Panamericana de la Salud

Resumen

Se describe la respuesta a un llamado de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, realizado en 2010, para conformar el Marco Regional de Competencias Esenciales en Salud Pública, con el propósito de apoyar a los Estados de las Américas en sus esfuerzos por fortalecer las capacidades de sus sistemas de salud pública, en tanto estrategia para el desempeño óptimo de las Funciones Esenciales de Salud Pública. El proceso metodológico de dicha respuesta se dividió en cuatro fases. En la primera se convocó a un equipo de expertos que definieron la metodología a seguir durante un taller en el Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública de México en 2010. La segunda fase fue la constitución de grupos de trabajo, utilizando dos criterios: experiencia y composición multidisciplinaria, lo cual derivó en un equipo regional con 225 integrantes de 12 países. Estos equipos elaboraron una propuesta inicial de 88 competencias. En la tercera fase se realizó una validación cruzada de las competencias, cuyo número se redujo a 64. Durante la cuarta fase, que incluyó dos talleres en marzo (Medellín, Colombia) y junio (Lima, Perú) de 2011, las discusiones se centraron en analizar la correspondencia de los resultados con la metodología.

Informe Especial sobre el proceso de construcción del Marco: Descargar informe especial

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Somatic instability of the expanded CTG triplet repeat in myotonic dystrophy type 1 is a heritable quantitative trait and modifier of disease severity

 

Abstract

Deciphering the contribution of genetic instability in somatic cells is critical to our understanding of many human disorders. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is one such disorder that is caused by the expansion of a CTG repeat that shows extremely high levels of somatic instability. This somatic instability has compromised attempts to measure intergenerational repeat dynamics and infer genotype-phenotype relationships. Using single-molecule PCR, we have characterized more than 17 000 de novo somatic mutations from a large cohort of DM1 patients. These data reveal that the estimated progenitor allele length is the major modifier of age of onset. We find no evidence for a threshold above which repeat length does not contribute toward age at onset, suggesting pathogenesis is not constrained to a simple molecular switch such as nuclear retention of the DMPK transcript or haploinsufficiency for DMPK and/or SIX5. Importantly, we also show that age at onset is further modified by the level of somatic instability; patients in whom the repeat expands more rapidly, develop the symptoms earlier. These data establish a primary role for somatic instability in DM1 severity, further highlighting it as a therapeutic target. In addition, we show that the level of instability is highly heritable, implying a role for individual-specific trans-acting genetic modifiers. Identifying these trans-acting genetic modifiers will facilitate the formulation of novel therapies that curtail the accumulation of somatic expansions and may provide clues to the role these factors play in the development of cancer, aging and inherited disease in the general population.

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Individual differences in the immobility behavior in juvenile and adult rats are associated with monoaminergic neurotransmission and with the expression of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 in the nucleus accumbens

 

Abstract

The study of individual differences provides an important methodological approach to analyze the neurobehavioral spectrum of a given cohort in order to understand brain function and disease. Based on immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST) juvenile and adult rats were classified as subgroups with low and high immobility. Afterwards, we compared behavior, neurochemical parameters, and gene expression profiles in some brain areas of rats with low and high immobility only. No differences in the open field test (OFT) were observed between subgroups. Regarding neurochemistry, juvenile animals with low immobility showed higher accumbal dopamine turnover and lower hippocampal norepinephrine concentrations, whereas adult rats only differed for accumbal dopamine, although in an opposite direction from that observed in juveniles. Moreover, the expression of accumbal corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRFR1) was significantly different in animals with low and high immobility at both ages, with animals less immobile showing higher levels of CRFR1 mRNA levels. Taken together, our findings suggest that differences in monoaminergic neurotransmission and CRFR1 expression are associated with the coping strategy adopted by the animal and with the tendency to develop depression-related behaviors. Concerning monoaminergic neurotransmission such association is modulated by age, and such modulation could be related to the differential behavioral results observed between juvenile and adult rats.

 

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Publicación gratuita: "Las Tic en algunos de los retos del sector salud: panorama, experiencias y perspectiva"

 

Les recomendamos está publicación donde se incluye un artículo sobre el Proyecto de Mujeres que salvan vidas y las TIC's" El autor principal es el Bch. Allan Bejarano de la Carrera de Promoción de la Salud, según la información suministrada por la Dra. Rocío Sáenz, Ex Ministra de Salud y Coordinadora de ese proyecto inscrito en la Escuela de Salud Pública.

 

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2013 Human Development Report

The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World

 Global launch: Thursday, 14 March 2013, 12:00 PM EST/4:00 PM GMT

The 2013 Human Development Report examines the profound shift in global dynamics driven by the fast-rising powers of the developing world – and its implications for human development.

The South is developing at a pace unprecedented in human history, with hundreds of millions of people being lifted out of poverty in developing nations and billions more poised to join a new global middle class

It’s not only the so called BRICS that are at the forefront of the Rise of the South - Bangladesh, Chile, Ghana, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Republic of Korea, Rwanda, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, and Vietnam are among the human-development high achievers highlighted.

An updated Human Development Index (HDI) will also be released in the 2013 Report. The HDI measures national progress in health, education and income.

The Report is strictly under embargo until Thursday, 14 March 2013, 4:00 pm GMT. The global launch will take place in Mexico City in a ceremony with United Nations Development Programme Administrator Helen Clark and President of Mexico Enrique Peña Nieto.

 

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